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Carbon Fiber Inogadzirwa Sei?

Carbon Fiber Inogadzirwa Sei?

Kugadzirwa, kushandiswa, uye ramangwana reichi chakasimba, chakareruka

Iyo inonziwo graphite fiber kana kabhoni graphite, kabhoni fiber ine tambo dzakaonda kwazvo dze element carbon. Mafayibha aya ane simba rakanyanya kusimba uye akasimba zvakanyanya pakukura kwawo. Kutaura zvazviri, imwe kabhoni faibha—iyo kabhoni nanotube—inoonekwa sechinhu chakasimba zvikuru chinowanikwa. Carbon fiber applications inosanganisira kuvaka, engineering, aerospace, mota dzepamusoro-soro, midziyo yemitambo, uye zviridzwa zvemimhanzi. Mumunda wesimba, kabhoni fiber inoshandiswa mukugadzira mashizha emhepo, gasi rekuchengetedza gasi, uye masero emafuta ekufambisa. Muindasitiri yendege, ine zvikumbiro mundege dzemauto nedzekutengesa, pamwe chete nemotokari dzemuchadenga dzisina munhu. Pakuongorora oiri, inoshandiswa mukugadzira mapuratifomu ekuchera mvura yakadzika nemapombi.

Fast Chokwadi: Carbon Fiber Statistics

  • Imwe neimwe tambo yekabhoni fiber ishanu kusvika gumi microns mudhayamita. Kuti ndikupe pfungwa yekuti idiki sei, imwe micron (um) iri 0.000039 inches. Tambo imwe chete yedandemutande sirika inowanzova pakati pemakironi matatu kusvika masere.
  • Carbon fibers dzakaoma zvakapetwa kaviri sesimbi uye kashanu kusimba sesimbi, (pachikamu chehuremu). Izvo zvakare zvinodzivirira zvakanyanya kumakemikari uye zvine kushivirira kwepamusoro-kushivirira nekuwedzera kwekuwedzera kwemafuta.

Raw Materials
Carbon fiber inogadzirwa kubva kuorganic polymers, iyo ine tambo refu dzemamorekuru akabatwa pamwechete nekabhoni maatomu. Mazhinji carbon fibers (anenge 90%) anogadzirwa kubva ku polyacrylonitrile (PAN) maitiro. Mari shoma (inenge 10%) inogadzirwa kubva ku rayon kana petroleum pitch process.

Magasi, zvinwiwa, uye zvimwe zvinhu zvinoshandiswa mukugadzira maitiro zvinogadzira chaiyo mhedzisiro, hunhu, uye mamakisi ecarbon fiber. Vagadziri veCarbon fiber vanoshandisa mafomula uye musanganiswa wezvigadzirwa zvezvinhu zvavanogadzira uye kazhinji, vanobata aya magadzirirwo sezvakavanzika zvekutengesa.

Iyo yepamusoro giredhi kabhoni faibha ine inonyanya kushanda modulus (inogara kana coefficient inoshandiswa kuratidza nhamba dhigirii kune chinhu chine chimwe chivakwa, senge elasticity) zvivakwa zvinoshandiswa mukukumbira zvikumbiro zvakaita semuchadenga.

Manufacturing Process
Kugadzira kabhoni fiber kunosanganisira zvese zvemakemikari uye zvemakanika maitiro. Raw zvinhu, zvinozivikanwa se precursors, zvinodhonzwa mumatambo akareba uye zvino kupisa kusvika pakupisa kwakanyanya munzvimbo yeanaerobic (isina okisijeni). Pane kupisa, kupisa kwakanyanya kunoita kuti maatomu efayibha azungunuke zvakanyanya zvekuti anenge maatomu ese asiri ecarbon anodzingwa.

Mushure mekuita kwecarbonization kwapera, fiber yasara inoumbwa neatomu refu, yakavharirwa zvakasimba kabhoni atomu asara mashoma kana asina asina kabhoni. Faibha idzi dzinozorukwa kuita jira kana kubatanidzwa nezvimwe zvinhu zvinozobva zvazorwa neronda kana kuumbwa kuva maumbirwo nemasaizi anodiwa.

Aya anotevera zvikamu zvishanu akajairwa muPAN maitiro ekugadzira kabhoni fiber:

  • Spinning. PAN inosanganiswa nezvimwe zvinoshandiswa uye inorukwa kuita shinda, iyo inobva yasukwa uye yakatambanudzwa.
  • Kudzikamisa. Mafibers anochinja makemikari kuti agadzikane.
  • Carbonizing. Fiber dzakadzikama dzinodziirwa kusvika patembiricha yakakwira kwazvo ichigadzira zvakasimba zvakasungwa kabhoni makristasi.
  • Kurapa Surface. Iyo yepamusoro yemafiber yakashongedzwa kuti ivandudze bonding zvivakwa.
  • Kukura. Fiber dzinoputirwa uye dzinokuvadzwa pamabobbins, ayo anoiswa pamichina yekuruka inomonyorora faibha kuita shinda saizi dzakasiyana. Panzvimbo pokurukwa kuva machira, mafiibha anogonawo kugadzirwa kuva zvinhu zvinoumbwa, achishandisa kupisa, kumanikidza, kana kuti vacuum kusunga mafiibha pamwe chete nepurasitiki polima.

Carbon nanotubes inogadzirwa nenzira yakasiyana pane yakajairwa kabhoni fibers. Inofungidzirwa kuve yakasimba zvakapetwa makumi maviri pane inotangira, nanotubes inogadzirwa mumavira anoshandisa lasers kupfutidza kabhoni particles.

Kugadzira Matambudziko
Kugadzirwa kwekabhoni fibers kunotakura akati wandei matambudziko, anosanganisira:

  • Kudiwa kwekuwedzera mari-inoshanda kupora uye kugadzirisa
  • Mari yekugadzira isingagoneki yezvimwe zvikumbiro: Semuyenzaniso, kunyangwe tekinoroji nyowani iri kuvandudzwa, nekuda kwemitengo inorambidzwa, kushandiswa kwekabhoni fiber muindasitiri yemotokari parizvino kwakaganhurirwa kumotokari dzepamusoro-soro uye dzeumbozha.
  • Maitiro ekurapa epamusoro anofanirwa kudzorwa zvakanaka kudzivirira kugadzira makomba anokonzeresa mafiibhi asina kukwana.
  • Kudzora kwepedyo kunodiwa kuti uve nechokwadi chekuenderana
  • Hutano nekuchengetedza nyaya dzinosanganisira ganda uye kufema kushatirwa
  • Arcing uye zvikabudura mumidziyo yemagetsi nekuda kweiyo yakasimba electro-conductivity yecarbon fibers

Ramangwana reCarbon Fiber
Sezvo kabhoni fiber tekinoroji ichiramba ichishanduka, mikana yekabhoni fiber inongosiyana uye kuwedzera. PaMassachusetts Institute of Technology, zvidzidzo zvakati wandei zvinotarisa pane kabhoni fiber zviri kutoratidza vimbiso yakawanda yekugadzira tekinoroji nyowani yekugadzira uye dhizaini yekuzadzisa kudiwa kweindasitiri iri kubuda.

MIT Associate Purofesa weMechanical Engineering John Hart, piyona we nanotube, anga achishanda nevadzidzi vake kushandura tekinoroji yekugadzira, kusanganisira kutarisa zvinhu zvitsva zvichashandiswa pamwe chete nemaprinta egiredhi e3D. “Ndakavakumbira kuti vafunge zvachose pamusoro penjanji; kana vakakwanisa kubata 3-D printa isati yamboitwa kana chinhu chinobatsira chisingagoni kudhindwa pachishandiswa maprinta azvino,” Hart akatsanangura.

Mhedzisiro yacho yaive muchina wemuenzaniso waidhinda magirazi akanyungudutswa, aizikirimu inoshandirwa munyoro—uye macomposites ecarbon fiber. Sekureva kwaHart, zvikwata zvevadzidzi zvakagadzirawo michina inogona kubata "nzvimbo huru-yakafanana extrusion yemapolymers" uye kuita "in situ optical scanning" yekudhinda.

Pamusoro pezvo, Hart akashanda naMIT Associate Purofesa weChemistry Mircea Dinca pamubatanidzwa wemakore matatu achangopera neAutomobili Lamborghini kuti vaongorore mukana weiyo kabhoni itsva fiber uye zvinhu zvakaumbwa izvo zvingaite rimwe zuva "kugonesa muviri wakazara wemota kuti ive. rinoshandiswa segadziriro yebhatiri,” asi richitungamirira ku“miviri yakareruka, yakasimba, ma<em>catalytic converter anonyatsoshanda, pendi yakatetepa, uye kufambisa kupisa kwesimba kwechitima [zvese].”

Nekubudirira kunoshamisa kudai pakatarisana, hazvishamise kuti musika wecarbon fiber unofungidzirwa kukura kubva pamadhora mazana mana nemazana manomwe nemakumi manomwe emadhora muna 2019 kusvika pamadhora zviuru gumi nezvitatu nemazana matatu nemakumi matatu nemazana matatu panosvika 2029, pamwero wekukura kwepagore (CAGR) we11.0% (kana kukwira zvishoma) pamusoro. nguva imwe cheteyo.

Sources

  • McConnell, Vicki. "Kugadzirwa kweCarbon Fiber." CompositeWorld. Zvita 19, 2008
  • Sherman, Don. "Kupfuura Carbon Fiber: Iyo Inotevera Yekuvandudza Chishandiso Yakasimba Kamakumi maviri." Mota uye Mutyairi. Kurume 18, 2015
  • Randall, Danielle. "MIT vaongorori vanobatana neLamborghini kugadzira mota yemagetsi yeramangwana." MITMECHE/MuNhau: Dhipatimendi reChemistry. Mbudzi 16, 2017
  • "Carbon Fiber Market neRaw Material (PAN, Pitch, Rayon), Fiber Type (Mhandara, Yakadzokororwa), Chigadzirwa Type, Modulus, Chikumbiro (Composite, Isiri-yakaumbwa), Kupera-kushandisa Indasitiri (A & D, Motokari, Mhepo Simba ), uye Nharaunda—Global Forecast kusvika muna 2029.” MarketsandMarkets™. Gunyana 2019

Nguva yekutumira: Jul-28-2021